Glossary of historical terms

Terms that are not now part of the Code, but that were part of the
Code in the past, that were proposed for inclusion in the Code, etc.
absolute synonym = homotypic synonym
aggregate species : a taxon composed of several species, bearing
                 a binomial as its name (a binomial different from the
                 binomials borne by its component species); Alchemilla
                 vulgaris, Euphrasia officinalis, Rubus fruticosus,
                 Taraxacum officinale
antitype : a duplicate
ap. : connecting term denoting an apomict
apotype : an interpretative specimen
association (of names) : the combination of a generic name with a
                 subdivisional epithet, connected by a rank-denoting term
automatic tautonym = autonym
basinym / basonym = basionym
Brittonia-Rules : the (unofficial) edition of the Rules included in
                 Brittonia (and later reprinted as a separate book), based
                 on the decisions of the 1935, Amsterdam Congress
Brittonian Code / Brittonian rules : the rules espoused by
                 N.L. Britton, the American Code (and its predecessor,
                 the Philadelphia Code)
caconym : malformed name
chirotype : a prospective type, for a manuscript name
clastotype : a loose fragment of a type specimen
cl. : connecting term denoting a clone
clonotype : 1)  a specimen taken from a clone of the plant that
                      yielded the holotype
                 2)  (latterday) a specimen taken later from the plant that
                      yielded the type (see emergento type)
collective epithet : an epithet applying to all descendants of a cross
                 between species (now: specific epithet of the name of a
conditional synonym : depends on a (taxonomic) decision whether
                 or not an earlier homonym is accepted as a correct name
convariety (used in the ICNCP) : a grouping comprising several
                 cultivars (now: Group)
cotype :    1)  any specimen used by the original author when no type
                      was designated (now: syntype)
                 2)  any specimen used by the original author other than the
                      holotype (now: paratype)
                 3)  a duplicate of the type (now: isotype)
cultivar-group (used in the ICNCP) : a grouping comprising several
                 cultivars (now: Group)
duplicate binomial / duplicating binomial = tautonym
duplicate type = isotype
emergento-type : taken later from the vivo-type (see also
equivalent synonym : a name for a taxon with the same
                 circumscription but a different type
exact synonym = homotypic synonym
familiotype : the type of a family name
form-genus : 1)  a genus maintained for classifying fossil specimens
                      that are not necessarily related but that need to be
                      provided with binomials (later: morphotaxon)
                 2)  a form-taxon at the rank of genus
form-taxon : a taxon comprising only the asexual form of a fungus
                   (an anamorph); see also form-genus
genotype / generotype : the type of a generic name
grex [multiple meanings, handle with care]
half-breed : see mistus
haptotype : with the same collection number as the holotype, but not
                 necessarily from the same plant
heterotype : a specimen selected after the original publication
holonomenifer = holotype (see nomenifer)
homoeotype : a specimen verified as matching the holotype
homonym [not the present one] : a later homonym (to be rejected)
homonymous binomial = a tautonym (see duplicate binomial)
Hort. / hort. : (in place of an author citation, hortulanorum, “of the
                 gardeners”) indicates a name as used among gardeners
                 (by itself not validly published)
hyponym : a name that cannot be applied with certainty (nomen
                 dubium, nomen nudum, or nomen subnudum)
hypotype : an interpretative specimen
iconotype : an illustration that is the nomenclatural type, the type
icotype : a specimen that matches the nomenclatural type
ideomerotype : a proteromerotype taken by the original author
ideotype / idiotype : a specimen that is typical of the taxon
impriorable name = illegitimate name
invalid name : see valid name and nomen invalidum
isonym  [not the present one] : any name based on a basionym
isopleth : specimen with the same number
Kew Rule : would have limited priority also per genus (instead of
                 only per rank)
lectoparatype : see paralectotype
line (used in the ICNCP) : a cultivar propagated by seed
line-hybrid (used in the ICNCP) : a cultivar that can reliable be
                 reproduced by a known crossing
lh. (used in the ICNCP) : connecting term denoting a line-hybrid
ln. (used in the ICNCP) : connecting term denoting a line
London Congress of 1930 : announced to be held there (initially in
                 1915), but later shifted to Cambridge (not to be confused
                 with the Imperial Botanical Conference, 1924, London)
lus. : connecting term (proposed) denoting a monstrosity (“lusus
                 naturae”) (also see “ter.”)
macro-species : a taxon composed of several species, bearing a
                 binomial as its name, while its component species would
                 have trinomials as their names
merotype : a specimen taken from the plant that yielded the holotype,
                 at that same time, but with a different collection number
metatype : 1)  a topotype identified by the author
                 2)  (proposed) = epitype
metonym = a heterotypic synonym
mistus (half-breed, métis) : the result of a cross between infraspecific
                 taxa of the same species
mixomorph : a particular chimaera
mm. : connecting term denoting a mixomorph
morphotaxon : comprises only the one part, life-history stage, or
                 preservational state represented by the fossil that is the
                 type of its name
nm. : connecting term denoting a nothomorph
nom mort-né : see nomen abortivum
nomen abortivum (“still-borne name”, “nom mort-né”,
                 “totgeborener Name”) : the (not closely defined)
                 predecessor of the illegitimate name
nomen ambiguum : a name that has been used concurrently in
                 different senses over a period of many years
nomen confusum : a name based on a mixed type
nomen dubium : a name that cannot be typified
nomen invalidum : not validly published, and thus not a name
                 (now: designation)
nomen nudum : published without a diagnosis or description (or
                 a reference to one), and thus not a name
nomen subnudum : published with a dubious diagnosis or
                 description, thus leaving it in doubt whether or not it is
                 a name
nomenifer [“name-bearing”] = nomenclatural type
nothomorph : a hybrid at infraspecific rank (now: nothovariety)
organ-genus : a genus comprising a particular kind (wood, pollen,
                 etc) of plant fossils
parahomonym : a name that is not spelled exactly the same (as
                 another name based on a different type), but very close
paralectotype : any syntype not chosen to be the lectotype
paranym = parahomonym
paronym : a parahomonym with the same derivation
paratautonym : a name that is not quite a tautonym, but very close
                 (e.g. Lycopersicon lycopersicum, Inga ynga)
Paris Code  [not the 1956 one] = the Lois, accepted by the 1867
                 Paris Congres
plesiotype : a specimen identified by someone who is not the author
pragmotype / pragmatotype = (proposed) epitype
primary type : as can be determined from the protologue
priorable name = legitimate name
priority of position : the concept that a choice between names in the
                 same publication is to be determined by relative position
                 within the publication
proteromerotype : a specimen taken later from the plant that would
                 have yielded the holotype, if a specimen had been taken
                 (or had been preserved)  (see also emergento-type)
proterotype : as can be determined from the protologue
protype = (proposed) epitype
pseudautonym (pseudo-autonym): a name with the same spelling,
                 and type, as a higher-ranking name (and which is not an
pseudotype : duplicate of type, not seen by the author
secondary type : 1)  a specimen selected after the original publication
                 2)  a specimen collected later
qualified synonym = heterotypic synonym
semicolon : (in an author citation, between the names of authors)
                 signifies “in” or “ex”
scientia amabilis : plant taxonomy
spermotype : a specimen taken from a plant grown from a seed or
                 spore of the plant that yielded the holotype
standard-species (/ -specimen) = type species (/ specimen)  [the
                 distinction at the time was that “type species” was used
                 in the American Code, while the “standard species” was
                 part of the British compromise]
still-borne name : see nomen abortivum
subdivision of a species : a taxon at infraspecific rank
subhybrid : a grouping comprising several nothomorphs
substitute type : a lectotype or neotype
substituto-type : a lectotype, not chosen from the original material,
                 but from the emergento-types or clono-types
ter. : connecting term (proposed) denoting a teratological form
ternary combination : see ternary name
ternary name : a name in three parts  (now: infraspecific name)
topotype : a specimen from the type locality
totgeborener Name : see nomen abortivum
trivial (name) = specific epithet
typonym : [= homotypic synonym]
                 1)  later homotypic synonym  (now: superfluous name)
                 2)  earlier homotypic synonym  (now: replaced synonym)
typonymous = homotypic
typonymous homonym = isonym  [the present one]
typotype : specimen that was the basis of the type illustration
valid name  [not the present “validly published name”] = legitimate
                  name  (also see ”nomen abortivum”)
vivo-type : living type
World-Code of (plant) nomenclature : the ideal of a Code that would
                 unite the International rules and the American Code
§ : connecting term denoting a section

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