Congress action on proposals to amend the International Rules of
Botanical Nomenclature
(Vienna Rules) submitted to the III IBC,
the 1910, Brussels Congress.  Based on the Proceedings.
Links go to several sources, mostly the Biodiversity Heritage
Library, but also to Cyberliber and local copies (copyright varies,
but in many cases has expired).

See also:

   •  conversion table
   •  list of proposals

The Recueil uses double pages to list the proposals, that is, two
facing pages, with the same page number, in four columns
(“Ie partie”, “IIe partie”, “IIIe partie”, “IVe partie”).
     The Rapporteur divided proposals in four categories: those
aiming to amend the existing Rules (these were out of order,
unless dealing with new material), those on non-vascular
cryptogams, those on fossils, and those on the list of
conserved names.
     At this time, the format  “Art. B 11”  was used to number
proposals to amend the existing rules.  For convenience sake,
this has been converted here to the latter-day format  “Art. 11
Prop. B”.  However, in the parts of the Recueil on non-vascular
cryptogams and on fossils, (also in some of the proposals) 
“Art.” stands for  “a proposal concerning a Rule”, and in such
cases the format  “Art. B 11”  has been converted to  “Prop.
11B”  (A, B, etc indicating different proposals on the same topic).

Both the synopsis of proposals, the Recueil synoptique,
and the Proceedings, Compte rendu, are entirely in French,
which means that all proposals were translated into French.
For practical purposes, quotations taken from the Proceedings
are rendered here in English, taken from the corresponding
parts of the Brussels Code.

as submitted     

          A motion (Rapporteur) was accepted to confirm the
          statement in the circular, that anything already discussed
          at Vienna was out of order.

Art. 2 [- Prop. A] Brit. Mus., Art. 2  –  out of order
[Art. 9 - Prop. A] [not assigned]  –  [n/a]
Art. 9 - Prop. B Amer. prop., 1  –  out of order
Art. 19 [- Prop. A] Amer. prop., 2  –  out of order
Art. 20 - Prop. A Amer. prop., 3  –  out of order
Rec. XI - Prop. A Schwerin, Art. 28  –  out of order
Rec. XIIbis (new) Schwerin, Art. 28  –  no
Art. 36 - Prop. A Amer. prop., 4  –  out of order
Art. 36 - Prop. B Brit. Mus. Art. 36  –  out of order
Rec. XVIIbis (new) Amer. prop., 4  –  out of order
Art. 37 [- Prop. A] Schwerin, Art. 46  –  out of order
Art. 38 - Prop. A Amer. prop., 6  –  out of order
Art. 39 - Prop. A Amer. prop., 5  –  out of order
Art. 39 - Prop. A Brit. Mus. Art. 39  –  out of order
Art. 42 - Prop. A Schwerin, Art. 52b  –  out of order
Rec. XX [- Prop. A] Brit. Mus. Rec. XX  –  out of order
Art. 43 - Prop. A Röll, Art. 43  –  out of order
Art. 43 - Prop. B Nathorst, Art. C  –  out of order
Art. 45 - Prop. A Amer. prop., 7  –  out of order
Rec. XXVI - Prop. A Amer. prop., 9  –  out of order
Art. 47 - Prop. A Amer. prop., 8  –  out of order
Art. 48 - Prop. A Röll, Art. 48  –  out of order
[Art. 51 - Prop. A] [not assigned]  –  [n/a]
Art. 51 - Prop. B [Amer. prop., 10]  –  out of order
Art. 54 - Prop. A [Rapporteur?]  –  yes
Art. 54 - Prop. B Greene  –  no
Art. 55 - Prop. B Schwerin, Art. 60  –  out of order
Art. 55 - Prop. C Amer. prop., 11  –  out of order
Art. 56 - Prop. A Schinz & Thellung  –  no
Art. 56 - Prop. B Candolle ex Schinz & Th.  –  no
Art. 56 - Prop. B Janchen  –  no
Art. 56 - Prop. C Briquet in Schinz & Th.  –  yes
Crypt. - Prop. 1  Stockmayer, Cyt., 1  –  postponed
Crypt. - Prop. 2  Stockmayer, Cyt., 2  –  postponed
Crypt. - Prop. 3A Amer. prop., 2  –  no (autom.)
Crypt. - Prop. 3B Saccardo  –  no (autom.)

      A motion (Magnus & Maire) was accepted to fix the starting
      point for [3C-I] Myxomecetes at 1753.

Crypt. - Prop. 3C-II.1 Proj. Moscow, Art. 70  

          a motion (Lutz, Farlow, Atkinson & Giesenhagen) was
          accepted to postpone making a decision on the starting point
          for Bacteria.

      [3C-II.2 : for Schyzophyceae see below]

      [3C-III : for Flagellatae see below]

Crypt. - Prop. 3C-IVε¹ [Norstedt]  
Crypt. - Prop. 3C-IVε² Stockmayer, Alg.  
Crypt. - Prop. 3C-IVε³ Brit. Mus. Alg., Art. 19A  
Crypt. - Prop. 3C-IVε4 Scand. Alg.  

        a motion from the joint algologists was accepted:
           “The nomenclature of algae in general begins with Linnaeus,
            Species Plantarum, ed. 1 (1753), with the following
                1. Nostocaceae homocysteae, 1891–93 (Gomont,
            Nostocaceae homocysteae);
                2. Nostocaceae heterocysteae, 1886 (Bornet et Flahault,
            Nostocaceae heterocysteae);
                3. Desmidiaceae, 1848 (Ralfs, British Desmidiaceae);
                4. Oedogoniaceae, 1900 (Hirn, Monographie und
            Ikonographie der Oedogoniaceen).
                5. The starting points for Diatomaceae, Flagellates, and
            Schizophyceae (excl. Nostocaceae) are reserved for the
            1915 Congress.”

Crypt. - Prop. 3C-V Proj. Moscow, Art. 70  

             a motion (Zahlbruckner) was accepted to fix the starting
             point for lichens at 1753.

Crypt. - Prop. 3C-VIη¹ Proj. Moscow, Art. 70  
Crypt. - Prop. 3C-VIη² Atkinson, A, B & C  
Crypt. - Prop. 3C-VIη³ Durand  

         a motion of the joint mycologists was accepted to to fix
         the starting point for fungi with Fries, Systema mycologicum,
         1821–32, with the exception of the Uredinales, Ustilaginales
         and Gasteromycetes, which are to have a starting point of
         1801 (Persoon, Synopsis methodica Fungorum).

Crypt. - Prop. 3C-VIIθ¹ Proj. Moscow, Art. 70  
Crypt. - Prop. 3C-VIIθ² bryolog.  

       on the proposal of the joint bryologists, it was accepted to
       fix the starting point for Sphagnaceae and Hepaticae at 1753,
       and for the Muscineae, Hedwig, Species Muscorum, 1801.

Crypt. - Prop. 4   Wille & Wittrock  –  as a Rec.
Crypt. - Prop. 5A Saccardo, IX  –  ±
Crypt. - Prop. 5B Atkinson, D & F  –  ±

               [it was pointed out (Dixon) that it would be useful to have
                a provision stating that the Rules apply to names of
                fungi unless stated otherwise]

Crypt. - Prop. 6A Kuntze, suppl., Art. 76  
Crypt. - Prop. 6A Kuntze, maturus, § 16  
Crypt. - Prop. 6B Proj. Moscow, Art. 71  
Crypt. - Prop. 6C Saccardo, X, XI, XII  
Crypt. - Prop. 6D Atkinson, E & G  

                 a motion by the combined mycologists was accepted, for
                 a provision to read:
                    “Among Fungi with a pleomorphic life-cycle the
                     different successive states of the same species
                     (anamorphoses, status) can bear only one generic and
                     specific name (binomial) that is the earliest which has
                     been given, starting from Fries, Systema, or Persoon,
                     Synopsis, to the state containing the form which it has
                     been agreed to call the perfect form, provided that the
                     name is otherwise in conformity with the rules.
                           The perfect state is that which ends in the ascus
                     stage in the Ascomycetes, in the basidium in the
                     Basidiomycetes, in the teleutospore or its equivalent
                     in the Uredinales, and in the spore in the Ustilaginales.
                           Generic and specific names given to other states
                     have only a temporary value.  They cannot replace a
                     generic name already existing and applying to one or
                     more species, any one of which contains the “perfect”

Crypt. - Prop. 7   Saccardo, VIII  –  out of order
Crypt. - Prop. 8A Eriksson, 1:o)  
Crypt. - Prop. 8B Fischer & Magnus, n. 1 & 2  
Crypt. - Prop. 9   Eriksson, 2:o)  

                 a motion by a group of mycologists was accepted:
                   “In the case of parasites, especially parasitic fungi,
                    authors who do not give specific value to forms
                    characterized from a biological standpoint but
                    scarcely or not at all from a morphological standpoint,
                    should distinguish within the species special forms
                    (forma specialis, f. sp.) characterized by their
                    adaptation to different hosts.  Special forms are named
                    preferably after the host species; if desired double
                    names may be used.”

Crypt. - Prop. 10 Fischer & Magnus, n. 3  –  yes
Crypt. - Prop. 11 Saccardo, II  –  yes
Crypt. - Prop. 12 Atkinson, Rec. I  –  yes
Crypt. - Prop. 13 Atkinson, Rec. II  –  no
Crypt. - Prop. 14 Atkinson, Rec. III  

                 was accepted as amended (Atkinson), to apply to any
                 new taxon.

Crypt. - Prop. 15 Saccardo, VI  –  no
Crypt. - Prop. 16 Schiffner  –  no
Crypt. - Prop. 17 Röll, Art. 12  –  withdrawn
Crypt. - Prop. 18 Röll, Art. 12  –  withdrawn
Crypt. - Prop. 19 Röll, Art. 37  –  withdrawn
Crypt. - Prop. 20 Röll, Art. 41, 1st para.  –  withdrawn
Crypt. - Prop. 21 Röll, Art. 41, 2nd para.  –  withdrawn
Crypt. - Prop. 22 Röll, Art. 43  –  withdrawn
Crypt. - Prop. 23 Röll, Art. 48  –  withdrawn
Crypt. - Prop. 24 Röll, Art. 50  –  withdrawn

              A motion (Maire) was referred to the Editorial
              Committee, to have a recommendation to authors of
              new taxa of fleshy fungi to preserve dried specimens.

Foss. - Prop. 1   Potonié, défin. préal.  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 2   Amer. prop., 1  –  yes
Foss. - Prop. 2   Potonié, ad Art. 91  –  yes
Foss. - Prop. 3A Kuntze, 1891, Art. 53  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 3A Kuntze, emend., Art. 53  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 3B Kuntze, maturus, § 8 g  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 3C Nathorst, Art. D  –  yes
Foss. - Prop. 3D Potonié, ad Art. 15 & 19  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 4   Nathorst, Art. E  

                    the joint palaeobotanists proposed to replace Prop. 4
                    by a new text, to provide a double list. They also
                    recommended to maintain Prop. 3, but otherwise to
                    reject Prop. 1-11 (fossil plants to follow the same
                    rules as extant plants).  Prop. 2, 3 and 4 were accepted
                    as modified.

Foss. - Prop. 5  Potonié, ad Art. 50  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 6  Potonié, ad Art. 21  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 7  Tuszon, Art. 1  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 8  Tuszon, Art. 2  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 9  Tuszon, Art. 3  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 10 Tuszon, Art. 4  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 11 Tuszon, Art. 5  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 12A Amer. prop., 6  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 12B Nathorst, Art. A  –  yes
Foss. - Prop. 12C Potonié, ad Art. 36 & 37  

                 was accepted as amended, to require a diagnosis in Latin.

Foss. - Prop. 12D Tuszon, Art. 7  –  no

              A motion (Prain) was accepted, to have a new
              Recommendation, to provide, beside the diagnosis in
              Latin, a detailed description in French, English, German
              or Italian.

Foss. - Prop. 13 Nathorst, Art. B  –  yes
Foss. - Prop. 14 Nathorst, Rec. ad Art. B  –  yes
Foss. - Prop. 15 Nathorst, Art. C  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 16 Candolle, Art. 10bis  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 16 Kuntze, Art. 10bis  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 17 Potonié, Rec. ad Art. 1  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 18 Potonié, Rec. ad Art. 2  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 19 Tuszon, Art. 6  –  no
Foss. - Prop. 20 Tuszon, Art. 8  –  no


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